J. Alwang, P. B. Siegel, and S. L. Jorgensen, Vulnerability: a view from different disciplines, 2001.

F. Arestoff and E. Djemai, Women's empowerment across the life cycle and generations: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa, World Development, vol.87, pp.70-87, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01385796

R. Bazillier, C. Boboc, and O. Calavrezo, Measuring employment vulnerability in Europe, International Labour Review, vol.155, issue.2, pp.265-280, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01375646

H. Bewley and J. Forth, Vulnerability and adverse treatment in the workplace, 2010.

J. Burgess, J. Connell, and J. Winterton, Vulnerable workers, precarious work and the role of trade unions and HRM, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.24, issue.22, pp.4083-4093, 2013.

R. Chambers, Editorial introduction: vulnerability, coping and policy, IDS bulletin, vol.20, issue.2, pp.1-7, 1989.

S. Chaudhuri, Assessing vulnerability to poverty: concepts, empirical methods and illustrative examples, 2003.

, Migrants at Work: Immigration and Vulnerability in Labour Law, 2014.

A. Deaton, Panel data from time series of cross-sections, Journal of econometrics, vol.30, issue.1-2, p.109, 1985.

K. Decancq and M. A. Lugo, Weights in multidimensional indices of wellbeing: An overview, Econometric Reviews, vol.32, issue.1, pp.7-34, 2013.

S. Dercon, Securing Development in an Unstable World, vol.30, pp.117-146, 2006.

R. Duval-hernandez and P. Romano, A cohort analysis of labor participation in Mexico, 1987.

G. Esping-andersen, The three worlds of welfare state, 1990.

, Convergence and divergence of job quality in Europe, EUROFUND, 1995.

, Publications Office of the European Union

C. Fagan, C. Lyonette, M. Smith, and A. Saldaña-tejeda, The influence of working time arrangements on work-life integration or'balance': a review of the international evidence, Conditions of Work and Employment Series, vol.32, 2012.

M. Frese, Occupational socialization and psychological development: An underemphasized research perspective in industrial psychology, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol.55, issue.3, pp.209-224, 1982.

, Precarious work, women, and the new economy: The challenge to legal norms, 2006.

D. Gallie, Production Regimes, Employment Regimes, and the Quality of Work, Employment Regimes and the Quality of Work, pp.1-34, 2007.

D. Gallie, Production Regimes, Employee Job Control and Skill Development, 2011.

M. Goos, A. Manning, and A. Salomons, Job polarization in Europe, The American Economic Review, vol.99, issue.2, pp.58-63, 2009.

N. Greenan, E. Kalugina, and E. Walkowiak, Has the quality of working life improved in the EU-15 between 1995 and 2005?, Industrial and Corporate Change, vol.23, issue.2, pp.399-428, 2013.

F. Green, Demanding work: The paradox of job quality in the affluent economy, 2006.

F. Green, T. Mostafa, A. Parent-thirion, G. Vermeylen, G. Van-houten et al., Is job quality becoming more unequal?, ILR Review, vol.66, issue.4, pp.753-784, 2013.

F. Green, A. Felstead, D. Gallie, and H. Inanc, Job-related well-being through the great recession, Journal of Happiness Studies, vol.17, issue.1, pp.389-411, 2016.

J. Hoddinott and A. R. Quisumbing, Methods for microeconometric risk and vulnerability assessments, 2008.

M. Hudson, The hidden one-in-five: winning a fair deal for Britains vulnerable workers, 2006.

R. A. Karasek-jr, Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain: Implications for job redesign, Administrative science quarterly, pp.285-308, 1979.

R. Karasek, Low social control and physiological deregulation-the stress-disequilibrium theory, towards a new demand-control model, Scandinavian journal of work, vol.34, issue.6, pp.117-135, 2008.

E. Ligon and L. Schechter, Measuring Vulnerability, The Economic Journal, vol.113, issue.486, pp.95-102, 2003.

, Handbook on constructing composite indicators: methodology and user guide, 2008.

S. O'regan, D. Hill, and F. Neathey, The Vulnerable Worker: A Definition and Research Approach, 2005.

E. A. Pascoe and L. Smart-richman, Perceived discrimination and health: a meta-analytic review, Psychological bulletin, vol.135, issue.4, p.531, 2009.

A. Pollert and A. Charlwood, The vulnerable worker in Britain and problems at work, Work, Employment & Society, vol.23, issue.2, pp.343-362, 2009.

G. Ridder and R. Moffitt, The econometrics of data combination, Handbook of Econometrics, vol.6, pp.5469-5547, 2007.

M. Sargeant and M. Giovannone, Vulnerable workers: health, safety and well-being, 2011.

A. Tangian, Analysis of the third European survey on working conditions with composite indicators, European Journal of Operational Research, vol.181, issue.1, pp.468-499, 2007.

S. Taylor, Defining and Researching 'Worker Vulnerability, 2008.

P. Tucker and S. Folkard, Working time, health and safety: A research synthesis paper, International Labor Organization, vol.31, pp.1-60, 2012.

M. Verbeek and L. Matyas, Pseudo-panels and repeated cross-sections. The Econometrics of Panel Data: Fundamentals and Recent Developments in Theory and Practice, pp.369-383, 2008.

M. Verbeek and T. Nijman, Minimum MSE estimation of a regression model with fixed effects from a series of cross-sections, Journal of Econometrics, vol.59, issue.1-2, pp.125-136, 1993.

W. K. Viscusi, 1912-to? ? Vibrations from hand tools, machinery, etc. ? Noise so loud that you would have to raise your voice to talk to people ? High temperatures that make you perspire even when not working ? Low temperatures whether indoors or outdoors ? Breathing in smoke, fumes, powder or dust, etc. ? Handling or being in direct contact with dangerous substances such as chemical, infectious materials, vol.31, 1993.

, questions, yes answers): -Does your job involve? ? Short repetitive tasks of less than 10 min? ? Working at very high speed ? Working at tight deadlines Note: Country abbreviation: Greece (EL), Spain (ES), Atypical working time (4 questions, positive answers): -Normally, how many times a month do you work? ? At night, for at least 2 hours between 10.00 pm and 05.00 am ? On Sundays ? On Saturdays -Do you work shifts? a1.4 High work intensity

A. Figure, Average vulnerability per gender and by survey year for each country Note: Country abbreviation: Greece (EL), Spain (ES), France (Fr), Ireland (IE), Portugal (PT), Finland (FI), Italy (IT), Austria (AT)