S. Abdelnour, Moi, Petite Entreprise, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01625681

A. Acquier, Retour vers le futur?, Le capitalisme de plateforme ou le retour vers le ?domestic system ?. Dossier Évolutions du Travail, Plates-Formes et Digital, Le Libellio d'AEGIS, vol.13, pp.87-100, 2017.

A. Aloisi, Commoditized workers: case study research on Labor law issues arising from a set of "on-demand/gig economy" platforms, Compar. Labor Law Policy J, vol.37, 2016.

E. Armano and A. Murgia, Hybrid areas of work in Italy: hypotheses to interpret the transformations of precariousness and subjectivity, Mapping Precariousness, Labour Insecurity and Insecurity Livelihoods, pp.47-59, 2017.

E. Armano and A. Murgia, Knowledge workers, Les Zones Grises des Relations de Travail et D'emploi, un Dictionnaire Sociologique, pp.281-290, 2019.

P. Ashton, R. Weber, and M. Zook, The cloud, the crowd, and the city: How new data practices reconfigure urban governance?, vol.4, pp.1-5, 2017.

C. Azaïs, P. Dieuaide, and D. Kesselman, Zone grise d'emploi, pouvoir de l'employeur et espace public: une illustration à partir du cas Uber, Indus. Relat. Relat. Indus, vol.72, pp.433-456, 2017.

, Modes de Gouvernance dans Quatre métropoles Latino-Américaines, 2014.

C. Azaïs, Pilote d'hélicoptère au Brésil, Les zones grises des relations de travail et d'emploi, pp.365-376, 2019.

C. Azaïs, Figures émergentes, Les zones Grises des Relations de Travail et D'emploi, pp.613-625, 2016.

G. Birgillito and M. Birgillito, Algorithms and ratings: tools to manage labour relations, Labour Law Issues, vol.4, issue.2, 2018.

Y. M. Boutang, Cognitive Capitalism, 2012.

R. Brishen, Employment Rights in the Platform Economy: Getting Back to Basics, 2016.

R. Brishen, The social costs of uber, Univ. Chicago Law Rev. Online, vol.82, 2017.

M. Bureau and P. Dieuaide, Institutional changes and transformations in labour and employment standards: an analysis of 'grey zones'. Transfer, Eur. Rev. Labour Res, vol.24, pp.261-277, 2018.

S. Cannon and L. H. Summers, How Uber and the Sharing Economy Can Win Over Regulators, Harvard Business Review. Available, 2014.

D. Cardon, Culture numérique, col. Les petites humanités, Presses de Sciences Po, 2019.

A. Carolus, J. Maximilians, F. F. Binder, R. Muench, C. Schmidt et al., Smartphones as digital companions: characterizing the relationship between users and their phones, New Media Soc, vol.21, pp.914-938, 2018.

A. Casilli, En Attendant les Robots, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02173160

A. Cattaruzza, ? Zones grises ?, interstices durables de la carte politique? Relecture critique d'un concept géopolitique, Bull. Assoc. Géogr. Français, vol.89, 2012.

R. Collier, V. Dubal, and C. Carter, Disrupting regulation, regulating disruption: the politics of uber in the United States, Perspect. Politics, vol.16, pp.919-937, 2018.

R. B. Collier, V. B. Dubal, and C. Carter, Labor platforms and Gig work: the failure to regulate, IRLE (Institute for Research on Labor and Employment), p.29, 2017.

C. Courlet and B. Pecqueur, L'économie Territorial, 2013.

, Uber, une voie de sortie pour la banlieue, Financial Times -Londres, vol.22, p.4, 2016.

M. Coutu, M. Le-friant, M. , and G. , Broken paradigms: labor law in the wake of globalization and the economic crisis, Compar. Labor Law Policy J, vol.34, pp.565-583, 2013.

V. De-stefano, Platform Work and Labour Protection. Flexibility is Not Enough. Regulating for Globalization 23th May, 2018.

G. Deleuze, Postscript on the Societies of Control, 1992.

X. N. Deng and K. D. Joshi, Why individuals participate in microtask crowdsourcing work environment: revealing crowdworkers' perceptions, J. Assoc. Inform. Syst, vol.17, pp.711-736, 2016.

P. Dieuaide, Grey zones and triangulation of the employment relationship in globalisation: a business policy approach. Transfer, Eur. Rev. Labour Res, vol.24, pp.297-315, 2018.

J. Drahokoupil and B. Fabo, The platform economy and the disruption of the employment relationship, ETUI Policy Brief. 1-6, 2016.

G. Duranton, La nouvelle économie géographique: agglomération et dispersion, Écon. Prév, vol.131, pp.1-24, 1997.

G. D. Erhardt, S. Roy, D. Cooper, B. Sana, M. Chen et al., Do Transportation Network Companies Decrease or Increase Congestion?, Available online at, 2019.

. Eurofound, Classifying Self-Employment and Creating an Empirical Typology, 2017.

. Eurofound, Employment and Working condItions of Selected Types of Platform Work, 2018.

K. Frenken and J. Schor, Putting the sharing economy into perspective, Environ. Innov. Soc. Trans, vol.23, pp.3-10, 2017.

A. Fumagalli, S. Lucarelli, E. Musolino, and G. Rocchi, Digital labour in the platform economy: the case of facebook, Sustainability, vol.10, p.1757, 2018.

A. Gauron, En quoi le Capitalisme des Plateformes Numériques est-il Singulier ?, Available online at, 2017.

B. Guerrien, Le marché en tant qu'utopie, Mouvements, vol.3, pp.62-69, 2006.

H. Guillaud, De la Conception Comportementale des Environnements de Travail, 22 Avril, 2017.

C. Havard, B. Rorive, and A. Sobczak, Client, employeur et salarié: cartographie d'une triangulation complexe, Économie et Société, Série AB, Économies du Travail, 2006.

H. Huws, Labor in a Global Digital Economy, 2014.

U. Huws, N. H. Spencer, J. , and S. , Crowd Work in Europe: Preliminary Results From a Survey in the UK, Foundation for European Progressive Studies (FEPS) (Brussels), p.58, 2016.

L. Irani, Difference and dependence among digital workers: the case of amazon mechanical turk, South Atlantic Q, vol.114, pp.225-234, 2015.

A. Jan, Livrer à vélo. . . en attendant mieux, Nouvelle Revue du Travail, vol.13, 2018.

S. C. Kingsley, M. L. Gray, and S. Suri, Accounting for market frictions and power asymmetries in online labor markets, Policy Internet, vol.7, pp.383-400, 2015.

B. Lautier and R. Tortajada, Ecole, Force de Travail et Salariat. Grenoble: Presses universitaires de Grenoble, 1978.

G. Minassian, Zones grises, Quand les États, 2018.

M. Möhlmann and L. Zalmanson, Hands on the wheel: Navigating algorithmic management and Uber drivers' autonomy, Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems, 2017.

A. Murgia and V. Pulignano, Neither precarious nor entrepreneur: the subjective experience of hybrid self-employed workers, Econ. Indus. Democr. 1-27, 2019.

B. O'keeffe and M. Jones, How uber plays the tax shell game, 2015.

W. Orlikowski, Sociomaterial practices: exploring technology at work, Organ. Stud, vol.28, pp.1435-1448, 2007.

J. Prassl and M. Risak, Uber, Taskrabbit, & Co: platforms as employers? Rethinking the legal analysis of crowdwork, Compar. Labor Law Policy J, vol.37, pp.619-649, 2016.

J. Reynaud, Réflexion I. Régulation de contrôle, régulation autonome, régulation conjointe, pp.103-113, 2003.

J. C. Rochet and J. Tirole, Platform competition in two-sided markets, J. Eur. Econ. Assoc, vol.1, pp.990-1029, 2003.

J. B. Schor and R. Wengronowitz, Chapter 2: The new sharing economy, Social Change and the Coming of Post-consumer Society, pp.25-42, 2017.

T. Serafini, The Deconstruction of Employment as a Political Question, 2018.

N. Srnicek, Platform Capitalism, 2017.

W. Streeck and K. Thelen, Beyond Continuity: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies, 2005.

A. Supiot, Contribution à une analyse juridique de la crise économique de, Rev. Int. Droit Travail, vol.149, pp.165-176, 2008.

A. Supiot, La Gouvernance par les Nombres. Coll. Poids et Mesures. Genève: Fayard, 2015.

R. H. Thaler and C. R. Sunstein, Paternalism libertarian, Am Econ Rev, vol.93, pp.175-179, 2003.

R. H. Thaler and C. R. Sunstein, Nudge: la Méthode Douce pour Inspirer la Bonne Decision, 2003.

K. Thelen, Regulating Uber: the politics of the platform economy in Europe and the United States, Perspec. Politics, vol.16, pp.938-953, 2018.

J. Tirole, Économie du Bien Commun, 2018.

A. Todolí-signes, The "gig economy": employee, self-employed or the need for a special employment regulation? Trans, Eur. Rev. Labour Res, vol.23, pp.193-205, 2017.

. Transfer, Work and employment grey zones: new ways to apprehend emerging labour market norms. Special Issue, p.24, 2018.

G. Valenduc, Chapter 3: New form of work and employment in the digital economy, The Deconstruction of Employment as a Political Question, pp.63-80, 2019.

G. Valenduc and P. Vendramin, Digitalisation, between disruption and evolution. Transfer: European Rev, Labour Res, vol.23, pp.121-134, 2017.

P. Vendramin, TIC et genre: des regards multiples, Tic Soc, vol.5, 2011.

J. Wajcman, New connections: social studies of science and technology and studies of work, Work Employ. Soc, vol.20, pp.773-786, 2006.

S. Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power, Public Affairs, 2019.