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Impact of original, B.1.1.7, and B.1.351/P.1 SARS-CoV-2 lineages on vaccine effectiveness of two doses of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines: Results from a nationwide case-control study in France

Tiffany Charmet 1 Laura Schaeffer 1 Rebecca Grant 1, 2 Simon Galmiche 1 Olivia Chény 3 Cassandre von Platen 3 Alexandra Maurizot 4 Alexandra Rogoff 4 Faïza Omar 5 Christophe David 5 Alexandra Septfons 6 Simon Cauchemez 7 Alexandre Gaymard 8, 9 Bruno Lina 8, 9 Louise Lefrancois 10, 11 Vincent Enouf 10, 11, 12 Sylvie van der Werf 10, 11 Alexandra Mailles 6 Daniel Levy-Bruhl 6 Fabrice Carrat 13 Arnaud Fontanet 1, *
Abstract : Background We aimed to assess the effectiveness of two doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines against COVID-19 with the original virus and other lineages circulating in France. Methods In this nationwide case-control study, cases were SARS-CoV-2 infected adults with onset of symptoms between 14 February and 3 May 2021. Controls were non-infected adults from a national representative panel matched to cases by age, sex, region, population density and calendar week. Participants completed an online questionnaire on recent activity-related exposures and vaccination history. Information about the infecting virus was based on a screening RT-PCR for either B.1.1.7 or B.1.351/P.1 variants. Findings Included in our analysis were 7 288 adults infected with the original SARS-CoV-2 virus, 31 313 with the B.1.1.7 lineage, 2 550 with B.1.351/P1 lineages, and 3 644 controls. In multivariable analysis, the vaccine effectiveness (95% confidence interval) seven days after the second dose of mRNA vaccine was estimated at 88% (81-92), 86% (81-90) and 77% (63-86) against COVID-19 with the original virus, the B.1.1.7 lineage, and the B.1.351/P.1 lineages, respectively. Recent (2 to 6 months) history of virologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was found to be 83% (76-88), 88% (85-91) and 83% (71-90) protective against COVID-19 with the original virus, the B.1.1.7 lineage, and the B.1.351/P.1 lineages, respectively; and more distant (> 6 months) infections were 76% (54-87), 84% (75-90), and 74% (41-89) protective against COVID-19 with the original virus, the B.1.1.7 lineage, and the B.1.351/P.1 lineages, respectively. Interpretation In real-life settings, two doses of mRNA vaccines proved to be effective against COVID-19 with the original virus, B.1.1.7 lineage and B.1.351/P.1 lineages.
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Tiffany Charmet, Laura Schaeffer, Rebecca Grant, Simon Galmiche, Olivia Chény, et al.. Impact of original, B.1.1.7, and B.1.351/P.1 SARS-CoV-2 lineages on vaccine effectiveness of two doses of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines: Results from a nationwide case-control study in France. The Lancet Regional Health - Europe, Elsevier, 2021, 8, pp.100171. ⟨10.1016/j.lanepe.2021.100171⟩. ⟨hal-03292779⟩

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