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Journal Articles European Journal of Education Year : 2022

Doctoral education from its medieval foundations to today's globalisation and standardisation

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Abstract

The doctorate, as a ritualised form of evaluation, has ex-isted for more than eight centuries—initially linked to Western medieval forms of knowledge production framed by religion, and to the professional training of lawyers and doctors. It nearly disappeared at the end of the modern era. Recast as a requirement for academic professions, it proceeded to play an important role in the production of new knowledge and became a key to scientific and re-search development in the 19th and 20th centuries. Since less than half a century ago, doctoral education has gone through tremendous changes due to both the globalisation and standardisation of higher education and public poli-cies designed to encourage knowledge transfers from aca-demia to society at large. Doctoral education has become a crucial part of knowledge production and the transfer of knowledge into the broader economy, but it faces huge ob-stacles that can only be understood by taking into account the history of its transformations, the anthropological role it played and still plays, and also the controversial effect of efforts to standardise knowledge production, which goes against the non-standard nature of human knowledge creation.
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Dates and versions

hal-03760460 , version 1 (25-08-2022)

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Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivatives - CC BY 4.0

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Jean-Claude Ruano-Borbalan. Doctoral education from its medieval foundations to today's globalisation and standardisation. European Journal of Education, 2022, 57 (3), pp.367-380. ⟨10.1111/ejed.12522⟩. ⟨hal-03760460⟩
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