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Association between adherence to the French dietary guidelines and the risk of type 2 diabetes

Abstract : Objective: French food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) were updated in 2017. The objective of this prospective study was to estimate the associations between the Programme National Nutrition Sante-guidelines score 2 (PNNS-GS2), reflecting the level of adherence to the 2017 FBDG, and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: A total of 79 205 French adult participants (mean age: 41.5 y [SD = 14.5]; 78.5% were women; 65% were postgraduate) from the NutriNet-Sante cohort (2009-2019) were included. Dietary intakes were collected using repeated 24-h dietary records. The PNNS-GS2 (theorical range: -infinity to 14.25), including six adequacy components and seven moderation components as well as a penalization on energy intake, was computed. The association between the PNNS-GS2 (as quintiles [Q]) and T2D risk was estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models accounting for sociodemographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle and health-related factors. Results: During an average follow-up of 6.7 y (536 679 person-years), 676 T2D cases occurred. In the multiadjusted model, participants with the highest PNNS-GS2 (higher adherence to the 2017 FBDG), compared with those with the lowest (lower adherence to FBDG), exhibited a 49% reduction in risk of T2D (HRQ5 versus Q1: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.69). Body mass index accounted for up to 27% of the main association. The healthy profiles of the cohort's participants may have reduced statistical power. Conclusions: In this large, prospective cohort study, a higher adherence to the French 2017 FBDG was strongly and inversely associated with the risk of developing T2D. Such analysis should be confirmed in other settings, but in terms of public health and nutritional policy, this study supports the relevance of the 2017 French FBDG. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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https://hal-cnam.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03834999
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Submitted on : Monday, October 31, 2022 - 11:41:15 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, November 17, 2022 - 3:18:30 AM

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Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Dan Chaltiel, Léopold Fezeu, Julia Baudry, Nathalie Druesne-Pecollo, et al.. Association between adherence to the French dietary guidelines and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Nutrition, 2021, 84, ⟨10.1016/j.nut.2020.111107⟩. ⟨hal-03834999⟩

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