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Nutritionally adequate and environmentally respectful diets are possible for different diet groups: 1 an optimized study from the NutriNet - Santé cohort

Abstract : Background: While research has shown that vegetarian diets have a low environmental impact, few studies have examined the environmental impacts and nutritional adequacy of these diets together, although vegetarian diets can lead to nutritional issues. Objectives: Our objective is to optimize and compare six types of diets with varying degrees of plant foods (lacto-, ovolacto- and pescovegetarian and diets with low-, medium- and high meat content) under nutritional constraints. Methods: Consumption data in 30,000 participants are derived from the French NutriNet-Santé cohort using a food-frequency questionnaire. Diets are optimized by a non-linear algorithm minimizing the diet deviation while meeting multiple constraints at both the individual and population levels: non-increase of the cost and environmental impacts (as pReCipe accounting for greenhouse gas emissions, cumulative energy demand and land occupation, distinguishing production methods: organic and conventional), under epidemiological, nutritional (based on nutrient reference values), and acceptability (according to the diet type) constraints. Results: Optimized diets were successfully identified for each diet type, except that it was impossible to meet the EPA + DHA requirements in lacto- and ovolactovegetarians. In all cases, meat consumption was redistributed or reduced and the consumption of legumes (including soy-based products), wholegrains, and vegetables were increased, while some food groups, such as potatoes, fruit juices and alcoholic beverages, were entirely removed from the diets. The lower environmental impacts (as well as individual indicators) observed for vegetarians can be attained even when nutritional references were reached except for long-chain omega 3 fatty acids. Conclusions: A low-meat diet could be considered as a target for the general population in the context of sustainable transitions, although all diets tested can be overall nutritionally adequate, except for 3-n fatty acids, when planned appropriately.NutriNet-Santé cohort is registered at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03335644.
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https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-03843320
Contributor : Emmanuelle Kesse-guyot Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Tuesday, November 8, 2022 - 9:59:10 AM
Last modification on : Friday, November 11, 2022 - 4:07:30 AM

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Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Benjamin Allès, Joséphine Brunin, Hélène Fouillet, Alison Dussiot, et al.. Nutritionally adequate and environmentally respectful diets are possible for different diet groups: 1 an optimized study from the NutriNet - Santé cohort. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, In press, pp.nqac253. ⟨10.1093/ajcn/nqac253⟩. ⟨hal-03843320⟩

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